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J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2019 Nov 22;11(4):358-365. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2019.0014. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Impact of Socioeconomic Characteristics on Metabolic Control in Children with Type 1 Diabetes in a Developing Country

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University of Jordan Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Amman, Jordan
University of Jordan Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Amman, Jordan
University of Jordan, The National Center (Institute) for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics, Amman, Jordan



Adequate glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes reduces the risk of future complications. Identifying factors affecting haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is crucial to management of metabolic control. We aimed to identify possible socioeconomic predictors of poor metabolic control this patient group in Jordan, a developing country with limited resources.


Medical charts of children with type 1 diabetes attending the pediatric endocrine clinics in two major diabetes centers were reviewed. HbA1c ≥7.5% (58 mmol/mol) was considered to reflect poor metabolic control. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of poor glycemic control. The association between socioeconomic characteristics and metabolic control was evaluated using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA).


Two hundred and fifty-nine children were enrolled in the study. One fifth of the patients (20.5%) achieved HbA1c <7.5%. Patients with dietary non-compliance [odds ratio (OR): 3.533, confidence interval (CI): 1.803 - 6.926; p<0.001], and those who were overweight (OR: 3.869, CI: 1.218 - 12.294; p=0.022) were more likely to have poor metabolic control. Children whose mothers had a bachelor’s degree or higher were less likely to have poor metabolic control compared to children whose mothers had only elementary education (OR: 0.241, CI: 0.079 - 0.734; p=0.012). MCA revealed an association between low socioeconomic status and poor metabolic control. Children with deceased mothers had significantly higher HbA1c of 10.6±1.86% compared to an average of 8.7±1.45% for the rest of participants (p=0.005).


Low socioeconomic status, lower levels of maternal education and maternal death were associated with poor metabolic control. Identifying children with these risk factors might play an important role in optimizing metabolic control and provide better diabetes care.


Type 1 diabetes; HbA1c; Jordan; metabolic control; socioeconomic status

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