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Cytotherapy. 2019 May;21(5):525-534. doi: 10.1016/j.jcyt.2019.02.010. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Insights into animal models for cell-based therapies in translational studies of lung diseases: Is the horse with naturally occurring asthma the right choice?

Author information

1
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy; Reproduction Unit, Centro Clinico-Veterinario e Zootecnico Sperimentale di Ateneo, Università degli Studi di Milano, Lodi, Italy. Electronic address: anna.langeconsiglio@unimi.it.
2
Equine Medicine Unit, Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.
3
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada.
4
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy; Reproduction Unit, Centro Clinico-Veterinario e Zootecnico Sperimentale di Ateneo, Università degli Studi di Milano, Lodi, Italy.

Abstract

Human asthma is a widespread disease associated with chronic inflammation of the airways, leading to loss of quality of life, disability and death. Corticosteroid administration is the mainstream treatment for asthmatic patients. Corticosteroids reduce airway obstruction and improve quality of life, although symptoms persist despite treatment in many patients. Moreover, available therapies failed to reverse the lung pathology present in asthma. Animal models, mostly rats and mice, in which the disease is experimentally induced, have been studied to identify new therapeutic targets for human asthma. Alternative animal models could include horses in which naturally occurring asthma could represent an important step to test therapies, potentially designed around mouse studies, before being translated to human testing. Horses naturally suffer from asthma, which has striking parallels with human asthma. Severe equine asthma (SEA) is characterized by reversible bronchospasms and neutrophil accumulation in the lungs immunologically mediated mainly by Th2. Moreover, the pulmonary remodelling that occurs in SEA closely resembles that of human asthma, making the equine model unique for investigation of tissue repair and new therapies. Cell therapy, consisting on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and derivatives (conditioned medium and extracellular vesicles), could represent a novel therapeutic contribution for tissue regeneration. Cell therapy may prove advantageous over conventional therapy in that it may repair or regenerate the site of injury and reduce the reaction to allergens, rather than simply modulating the inflammatory process.

KEYWORDS:

equine; extracellular vesicles; mesenchymal stromal cells; regenerative medicine; respiratory disease

PMID:
30929991
DOI:
10.1016/j.jcyt.2019.02.010

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