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Health Care Women Int. 2019 Mar 25:1-15. doi: 10.1080/07399332.2019.1590359. [Epub ahead of print]

Design and validation of the social assimilation of beauty and body image stereotypes questionnaire in Spain.

Author information

a Faculty of Nursing , University of Murcia , Murcia , Spain.
b Nursing Women and Care Research Group , University of Murcia , Murcia , Spain.
c Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria (IMIB-Arrixaca) , Murcia , Spain.
d Faculty of Health Sciences , University of Alicante , Alicante , Spain.


It may be considered esthetic violence when social demands regarding beauty affect and manipulate the development of individual identity and body image to respond to supposed prevailing ideals in society. We design and validate an instrument for measuring the degree of social assimilation of such stereotypes regarding beauty and body image linked to gender. The questionnaire was developed from a sample of 918 Spanish adults who participated online to develop it. The questionnaire was composed of 23 items. The assessment of preconceived images of bodily perfection provides examples of how esthetic violence affects the health of both men and women.

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