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Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2019 Mar;16(3):369-382. doi: 10.17458/per.vol16.2019.svb.tofreezeornot.

To Freeze or Not to Freeze? An Update on Fertility Preservation In Females with Turner Syndrome.

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Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (route 791) O.Box 9101, 500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands, E-mail:
The Netherlands, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Radboud university medical center, Amalia Children's Hospital, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radboud university medical center, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.


Introduction Infertility is a major concern for females with Turner syndrome (TS), regardless of their age. While fertility preservation is now routinely offered to girls and young women with cancer, there are currently no recommendations on fertility preservation in girls and young women with TS who generally face an even higher risk for infertility. Despite the lack of international guidelines, preservation procedures have been performed experimentally in females with TS. Methods A systematic literature search based on the PRISMA-P methodology for systematic reviews was performed in order to collect all published data on fertility preservation options in females with TS between January 1980 and April 2018. A total number of 67 records were included in this review. The records were screened for information regarding cryopreservation of mature oocytes and ovarian tissue in females with TS. Two ongoing trials on fertility preservation in young females with TS were also included. Results Cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian tissue has been performed experimentally in >150 girls and adolescents with TS over the last 16 years. The efficacy of fertility preservation options in females with TS is still unknown due to the lack of follow-up data. Conclusion The efficacy of fertility preservation procedures in females with TS is still unknown. Future studies with focus on efficacy, safety and long-term follow-up are desperately needed.


Cryopreservation of oocytes; Fertility preservation; Ovarian tissue cryopreservation; Premature ovarian insufficiency; Turner syndrome

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