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J Clin Med. 2019 Mar 15;8(3). pii: E367. doi: 10.3390/jcm8030367.

Synergistic Action of Gefitinib and GSK41364A Simultaneously Loaded in Ratiometrically-Engineered Polymeric Nanoparticles for Glioblastoma Multiforme.

Author information

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA. praveena_velpurisiva@student.uml.edu.
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA. prrai1@gmail.com.

Abstract

Glioblastoma Multiforme is a deadly cancer of glial cells with very low survival rates. Current treatment options are invasive and have serious side effects. Single drug treatments make the tumor refractory after a certain period. Combination therapies have shown improvements in treatment responses against aggressive forms of cancer and are becoming a mainstay in the management of cancer. The purpose of this study is to design a combinatorial treatment regimen by engineering desired ratios of two different small molecule drugs (gefitinib and GSK461364A) in a single carrier that can reduce off-target effects and increase their bioavailability. Synergistic effects were observed with our formulation when optimal ratios of gefitinib and GSK461364A were loaded in poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid and polyethylene glycol (PLGA-PEG) nanoparticles and tested for efficacy in U87-malignant glioma (U87-MG) cells. Combination nanoparticles proved to be more effective compared to single drug encapsulated nanoparticles, free drug combinations, and the mixture of two single loaded nanoparticles, with statistically significant values at certain ratios and drug concentrations. We also observed drastically reduced clonogenic potential of the cells that were treated with free drugs and nanoparticle combinations in a colony forming assay. From our findings, we conclude that the combination of GSK461364A and higher concentrations of gefitinib when encapsulated in nanoparticles yield synergistic killing of glioma cells. This study could form the basis for designing new combination treatments using nanoparticles to deliver multiple drugs to cancer cells for synergistic effects.

KEYWORDS:

GSK461364A; cancer; combination therapy; drug interaction; drug resistance; enhanced permeation and retention; gefitinib; glioblastoma multiforme; polymeric nanoparticles; synergistic effect

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