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J Korean Assoc Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Feb;45(1):29-33. doi: 10.5125/jkaoms.2019.45.1.29. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

The evaluation of implant stability measured by resonance frequency analysis in different bone types.

Author information

Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad, Iran.
Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, Sabzevar University of Medical Science, Sabzevar, Iran.



Bone density seems to be an important factor affecting implant stability. The relationship between bone density and primary and secondary stability remains under debate. The aim of this study was to compare primary and secondary stability measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) between different bone types and to compare implant stability at different time points during 3 months of follow-up.

Materials and Methods:

Our study included 65 implants (BioHorizons Implant Systems) with 3.8 or 4.6 mm diameter and 9 or 10.5 mm length in 59 patients. Bone quality was assessed by Lekholm-Zarb classification. After implant insertion, stability was measured by an Osstell device using RFA at three follow-up visits (immediately, 1 month, and 3 months after implant insertion). ANOVA test was used to compare primary and secondary stability between different bone types and between the three time points for each density type.


There were 9 patients in type I, 18 patients in type II, 20 patients in type III, and 12 patients in type IV. Three implants failed, 1 in type I and 2 in type IV. Stability values decreased in the first month but increased during the following two months in all bone types. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between RFA values of different bone types at each follow-up or between stability values of each bone type at different time points.


According to our results, implant stability was not affected by bone density. It is difficult to reach a certain conclusion about the effect of bone density on implant stability as stability is affected by numerous factors.


Dental implant; Implant stability; Implant stability quotient

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

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