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J Periodontal Implant Sci. 2019 Feb 26;49(1):39-46. doi: 10.5051/jpis.2019.49.1.39. eCollection 2019 Feb.

Primary stability of implants with peri-implant bone defects of various widths: an in vitro investigation.

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Department of Periodontology, Periodontal-Implant Clinical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University School of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.



This study aimed to evaluate the effects of i) the extent of peri-implant bone defects and ii) the application of bone cement on implant stability with respect to the measurement direction.


In 10 bovine rib bones, 4 implant osteotomies with peri-implant bone defects of various widths were prepared: i) no defect (D0), ii) a 2-mm-wide defect (D2), iii) a 4-mm-wide defect (D4), and iv) a 8-mm-wide defect (D8). The height of all defects was 10 mm. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) values and Periotest values (PTVs) were measured after implant placement and bone cement application.


With increasing defect width, decreased ISQs and increased PTVs were observed. Statistically significant differences were found between groups D0 and D8, D0 and D4, and D2 and D8. Prior to bone cement application, inconsistent PTVs were found in group D8 depending on the measurement direction. Bone cement increased the implant stability.


Peri-implant bone deficits measuring around 50% of the implant surface compromised implant stability. Clinically, PTVs should be cautiously interpreted in implants with large peri-implant defects due to inconsistent recordings with respect to the measurement direction.


Alveolar bone loss; Anatomic models; Bone transplantation; Dental implants

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

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