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Int J Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2018 Jun;5(2):35-38. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpam.2018.05.004. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Approach to recurrent Herpes Simplex Encephalitis in children.

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Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Disease, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
College of Medicine, Al-Imam Muhammad ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
College of Medicine, Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia.
Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, INSERM U1163, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, Paris, France.
Paris Descartes University, Imagine Institute, Paris, France.
Pediatric Hematology-Immunology Unit, Necker Hospital for Sick Children, AP-HP, Paris, France.
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, USA.
St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.


Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is one of the commonest viral encephalitis and its recurrence is being increasingly reported were HSE relapse rate came up to 5%. Both herpes simplex virus (HSV) types can lead to encephalitis and it was established that HSV-1 is capable of nervous system invasion, latency, and recurrence. The recurrence of HSE used to be attributed to immunological compromise, but reports show many cases have no obvious immune system impairment. Further investigations revealed genetic predispositions to HSV infection that would explain the host vulnerability to its recurrence. In this review, we discuss the gene mutations that may predispose to recurrent HSE and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.

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