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Phys Med Biol. 2019 Apr 4;64(7):075018. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/ab0917.

Posture-dependent dose coefficients of mesh-type ICRP reference computational phantoms for photon external exposures.

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Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, United States of America.


Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) developed new mesh-type reference computational phantoms (MRCPs) that provide high deformability compared with the current voxel-type reference computational phantoms of ICRP Publication 110. Taking advantage of this deformability, in the present study, the MRCPs were deformed to five non-standing postures (i.e. walking, sitting, bending, kneeling, and squatting) by developing and using a systematic posture-change method based on the as-rigid-as-possible (ARAP) shape-deformation algorithm and motion-capture technology. The non-standing MRCPs were then implemented in the Geant4 Monte Carlo code to calculate a comprehensive dataset of dose coefficients (DCs) for photon external exposures. These include the dose coefficients for 29 individual organs/tissues and the dose coefficients for effective doses from 0.01 MeV to 10 GeV in the antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT), right-lateral (RLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO) geometries. To investigate the dosimetric impact of posture, the DCs of the non-standing MRCPs were compared with those of the original MRCPs (in the standing posture). The results showed that organ/tissue doses are significantly influenced by posture, with arm position mostly influencing dose to organs/tissues in the torso region and leg position influencing dose in the pelvic region. For most cases, the gonads showed notably large differences, ranging from a few tens of percentage points to several orders of magnitude, depending on posture and irradiation geometry. The effective doses showed much smaller differences than the organ/tissue doses, but they were nonetheless significant: for example, the kneeling MRCPs in the AP geometry showed lower values at energies  <10 MeV by up to 30% and greater values at higher energies by up to 40%. The presented results indicate that not only different irradiation geometries, but also different postures might be necessary in DC calculations for reliable dose estimates for radiological protection purposes.


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