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J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc. 2019 Aug 28;20(3):178-195. doi: 10.4274/jtgga.galenos.2019.2018.0170. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Evaluation and comparison of the effects of various cognitive-behavioral therapy methods on climacteric symptoms: A systematic review study

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Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
Reproductive Studies and Women’s Health Research Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
Department of Midwifery, School of Medicine, Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Climacteric syndrome, which is related to many symptoms, often causes discomfort in women. Non-pharmacologic treatment is one of the treatment options for affected individuals, and this syndrome can be cured with psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of various CBT methods on the improvement of climacteric symptoms.

Material and Methods:

PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, Medline, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles published between January 1990 and August 2018. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted by two authors.


A total of 15 articles including 910 women were entered. We divided the CBT methods into two categories, face-to-face (individual and group CBT) and indirect (self-help CBT) methods. Among the three CBT approaches, three articles covered individual CBT, nine articles carried out group CBT, and in five articles, the self-help approach was used. The climacteric symptoms that improved with CBT were categorized into three groups as vasomotor symptoms, psychological symptoms, and organic disorders. Generally, the face-to-face method played a key positive effect on symptom improvement, and the group CBT approach was more effective on psychological symptoms.


Although the indirect method is more cost-effective, it has less impact than the face-to-face method; it is better to use face-to-face approaches to achieve better results, if possible. Further studies are required in this regard, particularly in the individual and self-help CBT approaches, to measure the impact of these approaches on more varied symptoms of menopause.


Climacteric; cognitive behavioral therapy; menopause; symptoms

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