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J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2019 Sep 3;11(3):262-269. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2018.2019.0241. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Associations Between Serum Uric Acid Concentrations and Cardiometabolic Risk and Renal Injury in Obese and Overweight Children

Author information

1
Çiğli State Training Hospital, Clinic of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, İzmir, Turkey
2
Manisa Celal Bayar University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Manisa, Turkey
3
Manisa Celal Bayar University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Manisa, Turkey

Abstract

Objective:

The aim of this study was to assess the association between serum uric acid concentration (SUAC) and the parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance (IR). The secondary aim was to evaluate whether hyperuricemia is associated with renal injury and cardiovascular risk in obese (OB) and overweight (OW) children.

Methods:

The subjects of this study consisted of OB/OW children and adolescents (ages: 8-18 years). Sex and age specific serum uric acid (SUA) olarak değiştirilecek percentiles were used and a SUA >75th percentile was accepted as hyperuricemia. Anthropometric data, blood pressure (BP) measurements and biochemical parameters, including fasting blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, homeostatic model assessments of IR (HOMA-IR) and SUAC were recorded. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) were performed in all patients. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio >4 and TG/HDL-c ratio >2.2 were used as the atherogenic index (AI) indicating cardiovascular risk. Urinary albumin excretion in a 24-hour and also in a first-morning urine sample were measured. Renal injury was assessed by microalbuminuria according to the National Kidney Foundation criteria.

Results:

There were 128 participants; 52 (40%) had elevated (SUA >75th percentile) and 76 had (60%) normal SUAC. The mean±SD age was 13.1±2.6 years and 87 (67.4%) were female. The mean±SD weight was 73±18.97 kg and mean±SD height was 155.4±12.11 cm. There was no statistical difference between the groups with and without hyperuricemia in terms of age, sex, puberty stage and degree of obesity. Increased SUAC were significantly associated with higher waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting insulin levels and insulin at 30 and 60 minutes during OGTT, HOMA-IR, lower HDL-c and presence of hypertriglyceridemia as well as with decreased HDL-c, increased AI, presence of IR and MetS. BP and microalbuminuria were not associated with SUAC. SUAC showed significant positive correlations with waist circumference, WHR, post-challenge glucose level at 60 minutes, with fasting insulin, post-challenge insulin levels at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes and also with HOMA-IR, total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, TG/HDL-c ratio and a number of other criteria related to MetS. Also, an inverse correlation with HDL-c was noted.

Conclusion:

In OB/OW children frequency of MetS, IR and dislipidemia increases with increased SUAC, a finding independent of age, puberty, gender and body mass index. Patients meeting all of the MetS criteria had the highest SUAC. These results demonstrate that the association between UA and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors can be detected early in childhood. Thus, we recommend monitoring SUAC in OB children and we believe that prevention of SUAC elevation in early life has a potential protective effect on metabolic impairment and subsequent comorbidities.

KEYWORDS:

obesity; renal injury; cardiovascular risk; child; Serum uric acid concentration; metabolic syndrome; insulin resistance

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