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Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2019 May;30:94-97. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.02.008. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Erdheim-Chester disease mimicking multiple sclerosis or a new association?

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Santa Lucía University Hospital, Cartagena, Spain.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Santa Lucía University Hospital, Cartagena, Spain.
3
Department of Pathological Anatomy, Santa Lucía University Hospital, Cartagena, Spain.
4
Department of Hematology and Hemotherapy, Santa Lucía University Hospital, Cartagena, Spain.
5
Department of Neurology, Santa Lucía University Hospital, Cartagena, Spain. Electronic address: japevik@gmail.com.

Abstract

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis that presents potential impairment of the central nervous system (CNS). Frequent CNS impairment makes ECD a disease worth considering in the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We report the case of a patient initially diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS with an atypical course who developed ECD during the disease progression. Given the patient's clinical-radiological characteristics, two diagnostic possibilities were proposed: the coexistence of both diseases or a new presentation of ECD mimicking MS. We conducted a literature review, analyzing the various diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities.

KEYWORDS:

Demyelinating lesions; Erdheim–Chester disease; Magnetic resonance imaging; Multiple sclerosis; non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis

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