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J Vet Intern Med. 2019 Mar;33(2):846-855. doi: 10.1111/jvim.15413. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Recurrent bacterial pneumonia in Irish Wolfhounds: Clinical findings and etiological studies.

Author information

1
Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
2
Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
3
Department of Veterinary Pathology and Public Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Increased incidence of bacterial pneumonia (BP) has been reported in Irish Wolfhounds (IWHs), and recurrence of BP is common. The etiology of recurrent pneumonia in IWHs is largely unknown.

OBJECTIVES:

To describe clinical findings in IWHs with recurrent BP and investigate possible etiologies.

ANIMALS:

Eleven affected IWHs, 25 healthy IWHs, 28 healthy dogs of other Sighthound breeds, and 16 healthy dogs of other breeds.

METHODS:

Prospective cross-sectional observational study. All affected IWHs underwent thorough clinical examinations including thoracic radiographs, thoracic computed tomography, electron microscopic evaluation of ciliary structure, and bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cytology and culture. Serum and BALF immunoglobulin concentrations were measured using an ELISA method, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed using flow cytometry. Esophageal function was assessed by fluoroscopy (n = 2).

RESULTS:

Median age of onset was 5.0 years (range, 0.4-6.5 years), and when presented for study, dogs had experienced a median of 5 previous episodes of BP (range, 2-6). The following predisposing factors to BP were detected: focal bronchiectasis (10/11), unilateral (2/9) and bilateral (1/9) laryngeal paralysis, and esophageal hypomotility (2/2). Local or systemic immunoglobulin deficiencies or primary ciliary defects were not detected.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:

Recurrent BP affects mostly middle-aged and older IWHs without any evident immune deficit or primary ciliary defects. Focal BE was a frequent finding in affected dogs and likely contributed to the development of recurrent respiratory infections. Laryngeal and esophageal dysfunction identified in a minority of dogs may contribute to recurrent BP.

KEYWORDS:

canine; dog; pulmonary; respiratory infection

PMID:
30666726
PMCID:
PMC6430867
DOI:
10.1111/jvim.15413
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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