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Noncoding RNA. 2019 Jan 16;5(1). pii: E9. doi: 10.3390/ncrna5010009.

Factors Regulating microRNA Expression and Function in Multiple Myeloma.

Author information

1
The Institute for Biomedical Research (IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. irenamk@usal.es.
2
Cancer Research Center-IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. irenamk@usal.es.
3
National Medicines Institute, 00725 Warsaw, Poland. irenamk@usal.es.
4
The Institute for Biomedical Research (IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. patrykk@usal.es.
5
Cancer Research Center-IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. patrykk@usal.es.
6
The Institute for Biomedical Research (IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. lacorsan@usal.es.
7
Cancer Research Center-IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. lacorsan@usal.es.
8
The Institute for Biomedical Research (IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. dalia@usal.es.
9
Cancer Research Center-IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. dalia@usal.es.
10
The Institute for Biomedical Research (IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. elirr@usal.es.
11
Cancer Research Center-IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. elirr@usal.es.
12
Faculty of Medicine, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. elirr@usal.es.
13
The Institute for Biomedical Research (IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. anah@usal.es.
14
Cancer Research Center-IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. anah@usal.es.
15
The Institute for Biomedical Research (IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. normagu@usal.es.
16
Cancer Research Center-IBMCC (USAL-CSIC), 37007 Salamanca, Spain. normagu@usal.es.
17
Hematology Department, University Hospital of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. normagu@usal.es.
18
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer (CIBERONC) number CB16/12/00233, 37007 Salamanca, Spain. normagu@usal.es.

Abstract

Intensive research has been undertaken during the last decade to identify the implication of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). The expression profiling of miRNAs in MM has provided relevant information, demonstrating different patterns of miRNA expression depending on the genetic abnormalities of MM and a key role of some miRNAs regulating critical genes associated with MM pathogenesis. However, the underlying causes of abnormal expression of miRNAs in myeloma cells remain mainly elusive. The final expression of the mature miRNAs is subject to multiple regulation mechanisms, such as copy number alterations, CpG methylation or transcription factors, together with impairment in miRNA biogenesis and differences in availability of the mRNA target sequence. In this review, we summarize the available knowledge about the factors involved in the regulation of miRNA expression and functionality in MM.

KEYWORDS:

methylation; miRNA; miRNA regulation; myeloma multiple

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