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Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2019 Apr 1;316(4):F646-F653. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00487.2018. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Zinc deficiency induces hypertension by promoting renal Na+ reabsorption.

Author information

1
Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, and Department of Physiology, Emory University , Atlanta, Georgia.
2
Research Service, Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center , Atlanta, Georgia.
3
Department of Neuroscience, Cell Biology, and Physiology, Boonshoft School of Medicine, and College of Science and Mathematics, Wright State University , Dayton, Ohio.
4
Department of Medicine, University of Chicago , Chicago, Illinois.

Abstract

Zn2+ deficiency (ZnD) is a common comorbidity of many chronic diseases. In these settings, ZnD exacerbates hypertension. Whether ZnD alone is sufficient to alter blood pressure (BP) is unknown. To explore the role of Zn2+ in BP regulation, adult mice were fed a Zn2+-adequate (ZnA) or a Zn2+-deficient (ZnD) diet. A subset of ZnD mice were either returned to the ZnA diet or treated with hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), a Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) inhibitor. To reduce intracellular Zn2+ in vitro, mouse distal convoluted tubule cells were cultured in N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN, a Zn2+ chelator)- or vehicle (DMSO)-containing medium. To replete intracellular Zn2+, TPEN-exposed cells were then cultured in Zn2+-supplemented medium. ZnD promoted a biphasic BP response, characterized by episodes of high BP. BP increases were accompanied by reduced renal Na+ excretion and NCC upregulation. These effects were reversed in Zn2+-replete mice. Likewise, HCTZ stimulated natriuresis and reversed BP increases. In vitro, Zn2+ depletion increased NCC expression. Furthermore, TPEN promoted NCC surface localization and Na+ uptake activity. Zn2+ repletion reversed TPEN effects on NCC. These data indicate that 1) Zn2+ contributes to BP regulation via modulation of renal Na+ transport, 2) renal NCC mediates ZnD-induced hypertension, and 3) NCC is a Zn2+-regulated transporter that is upregulated with ZnD. This study links dysregulated renal Na+ handling to ZnD-induced hypertension. Furthermore, NCC is identified as a novel mechanism by which Zn2+ regulates BP. Understanding the mechanisms of ZnD-induced BP dysregulation may have an important therapeutic impact on hypertension.

KEYWORDS:

blood pressure; hypertension; kidney; sodium-chloride cotransporter; zinc deficiency

PMID:
30649891
PMCID:
PMC6483028
[Available on 2020-04-01]
DOI:
10.1152/ajprenal.00487.2018

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