Send to

Choose Destination
J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2019 Nov 22;11(4):419-425. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.galenos.2019.2018.0220. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

A Novel Nonsense Mutation of PHF6 in a Female with Extended Phenotypes of Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann Syndrome

Zhang X1,2, Fan Y1,2, Liu X1, Zhu MA3, Sun Y1, Yan H1, He Y1, Ye X1, Gu X1, Yu Y1.

Author information

Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Genetics, Shanghai, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Pediatric Translational Medicine Institute, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, The Laboratory of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Shanghai, China


Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS) is a rare X-linked disease caused by PHF6 mutations. Classic BFLS has been associated with intellectual disability (ID), developmental delay (DD), obesity, epilepsy, typical facial features and anomalies of fingers and toes. Endocrinological phenotypes and outcome of treatment in this condition remain to be delineated. Here we report a patient who exhibited complete growth hormone deficiency who responded to hormonal treatment but with adverse effects. Horseshoe kidney was present in this patient, which is also atypical in BFLS. A heterozygous nonsense mutation c.673C>T (p.R225X) of PHF6 gene was identified in the patient, inherited from her unaffected mother. Both the patient and her mother showed highly skewed X-inactivation. We reviewed the phenotypes of all reported BFLS cases, and summarized their endocrine presentations. This first report of an Asian patient with BFLS further delineated the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of the syndrome. The adverse effect experienced by the patient suggests caution in the use of growth hormone treatment in this condition.


Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome; PHF6; X-inactivation; growth hormone deficiency; rhGH treatment; hypogonadism

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Galenos Yayinevi Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center