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Cell Host Microbe. 2019 Jan 9;25(1):13-26. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.12.006.

Innate and Adaptive Immune Memory: an Evolutionary Continuum in the Host's Response to Pathogens.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department for Immunology & Metabolism, Life and Medical Sciences Institute (LIMES), University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany; Human Genomics Laboratory, Craiova University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova, Romania. Electronic address: mihai.netea@radboudumc.nl.
2
Myeloid Cell Biology, Life and Medical Sciences Institute (LIMES), University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany.
3
Department for Immunology & Metabolism, Life and Medical Sciences Institute (LIMES), University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany.
4
Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Department of Medical Genetics, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
5
Department for Genomics & Immunoregulation, Life and Medical Sciences Institute (LIMES), University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany; PRECISE Platform for Single Cell Genomics and Epigenomics at the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases and the University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address: j.schultze@uni-bonn.de.

Abstract

Immunological memory is an important evolutionary trait that improves host survival upon reinfection. Memory is a characteristic recognized within both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Although the mechanisms and properties through which innate and adaptive immune memory are induced are distinct, they collude to improve host defense to pathogens. Here, we propose that innate immune memory, or "trained immunity," is a primitive form of adaptation in host defense, resulting from chromatin structure rearrangement, which provides an increased but non-specific response to reinfection. In contrast, adaptive immune memory is more advanced, with increased magnitude of response mediated through epigenetic changes, as well as specificity mediated by gene recombination. An integrative model of immune memory is important for broad understanding of host defense, and for identifying the most effective approaches to modulate it for the benefit of patients with infections and immune-mediated diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Adaptive immunity; Evolution; Immune memory; Innate immunity; Trained immunity

PMID:
30629914
DOI:
10.1016/j.chom.2018.12.006

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