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Biomed Res Int. 2018 Nov 21;2018:7672695. doi: 10.1155/2018/7672695. eCollection 2018.

The Effect of Smoking Behavior on Alveolar Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Clinical Implant Patient.

Zhao X1,2, Zhu B1,3, Duan Y1, Wang X1, Li D1.

Author information

State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases and Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Oral Implants, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi, China.
Department of Stomatology, Affiliated Heping Hospital, Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, Shanxi, China.
Department of Stomatology, PLA Xizang Military Region General Hospital, Lhasa, Tibet, China.



The hazardous effects of smoking on the alveolar bone healing after implant surgery and nicotine on the biofunction of human alveolar bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hABMMSCs) were reported. There was little direct evidence regarding the specific detrimental effects of the smoking on hABMMSCs. The aim of this study was to test the influence of smoking behavior on hABMMSCs and the osseointegration situation after implant surgery.


hABMMSCs from 6 dental implant patients randomly (3 smokers and 3 nonsmokers) were compared. The cell viability, colony forming unit, and cell cycle were performed to assay proliferation capacity. The Oil Red O staining, Alizarin Red staining, alkaline phosphatase staining and activity, adipogenic and osteogenic gene expressions in vitro, and bone formation ectopically in vivo were performed under proper inductions, respectively, to assay multilineage differentiation. Besides the implant stability quotient and marginal bone loss were checked in both groups.


Smoking hABMMSCs showed lower proliferation in vitro and poorer bone regeneration capacity in vivo. Moreover, smokers performed worse on bone healing after implant surgery.


Our results suggested smoking had the detrimental genetic effect on proliferation and osteogenesis of hABMMSCs and the decreased biofunction of hABMMSCs was positively related with bone healing.

Clinical Significance:

The present study provided direct evidence about hazardous effects of smoking behavior on hABMMSCs. Smoking decreased the osteogenesis and proliferation of hABMMSCs in vivo and in vitro, and smoking was positively related with osseointegration reduction. Prevention of smoking behavior may promote biofunction of hABMMSCs and successful rate of dental implant.

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