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Science. 2019 Jan 4;363(6422). pii: eaat6280. doi: 10.1126/science.aat6280. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Commensal-specific T cell plasticity promotes rapid tissue adaptation to injury.

Author information

1
Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
2
Molecular Immunology and Inflammation Branch, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
3
NIAID Microbiome Program, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
4
Biological Imaging, Research Technology Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
5
Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Basic Science Program, Cancer and Inflammation Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
6
Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
7
Inserm Unité 976, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.
8
Intracellular Parasite Biology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
9
Cancer and Inflammation Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
10
Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ybelkaid@niaid.nih.gov.

Abstract

Barrier tissues are primary targets of environmental stressors and are home to the largest number of antigen-experienced lymphocytes in the body, including commensal-specific T cells. We found that skin-resident commensal-specific T cells harbor a paradoxical program characterized by a type 17 program associated with a poised type 2 state. Thus, in the context of injury and exposure to inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-18, these cells rapidly release type 2 cytokines, thereby acquiring contextual functions. Such acquisition of a type 2 effector program promotes tissue repair. Aberrant type 2 responses can also be unleashed in the context of local defects in immunoregulation. Thus, commensal-specific T cells co-opt tissue residency and cell-intrinsic flexibility as a means to promote both local immunity and tissue adaptation to injury.

PMID:
30523076
DOI:
10.1126/science.aat6280
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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