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J Periodontol. 2018 Dec 2. doi: 10.1002/JPER.18-0179. [Epub ahead of print]

Effects of statins on multispecies oral biofilm identify simvastatin as a drug candidate targeting Porphyromonas gingivalis.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
2
Department of Clinical Science, Broegelmann Research Laboratory, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
3
Małopolska Center of Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.
4
Department of Oral Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Dentistry, Louisville, Kentucky.
5
Institute of Oncology Research, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
6
2C SysBioMed, Contra, Switzerland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Statins effectively reduce risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality in patients with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or type 2 diabetes. In addition to lowering cholesterol levels, several studies have attributed statins with immunomodulatory and bactericidal properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate statins' antimicrobial activity against periodontal homeostasis bacteria.

METHODS:

Statin effect on bacterial growth was tested using planktonic monocultures and multibacterial biofilms. The latter consisted of five microbial species (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces naeslundii, Tannerella forsythia, and Streptococcus gordonii) associated with dysbiosis of the oral microbiota underlying establishment and perpetuation of periodontitis.

RESULTS:

All four tested statins efficiently inhibited P. gingivalis growth and significantly decreased the cumulative bacterial load in developing and established biofilms. Simvastatin was most efficient and decreased P. gingivalis counts more than 1,300-fold relative to the control.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest that similar effects on bacterial composition of the dental plaque may occur in vivo in patients on statins, thus, leading to a shift of the oral microbiome from a dysbiotic to a more homeostatic one. Simvastatin, being highly effective against P. gingivalis while not affecting commensal microbiota, possesses many properties qualifying it as a potential adjunctive treatment for chronic periodontitis. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether similar effects on bacterial composition of the dental plaque may occur in vivo in patients on statins, thus, leading to a shift of the oral microflora from dysbiotic to a more homeostatic one.

KEYWORDS:

antiplaque agents; periodontitis; plaque control

PMID:
30506795
DOI:
10.1002/JPER.18-0179

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