Send to

Choose Destination
Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Dec;24(12):2382-2386. doi: 10.3201/eid2412.180567.

Disseminated Spiroplasma apis Infection in Patient with Agammaglobulinemia, France.


We report a disseminated infection caused by Spiroplasma apis, a honeybee pathogen, in a patient in France who had X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Identification was challenging because initial bacterial cultures and direct examination by Gram staining were negative. Unexplained sepsis in patients with agammaglobulinemia warrants specific investigation to identify fastidious bacteria such as Spiroplasma spp.


Apis; Apis mellifera; Bruton; France; Spiroplasma; Spiroplasma apis; agammaglobulinemia; bacteria; bacterial endocarditis; bacterial infection; bee; bruton thyrosine kinase; btk; endocarditis; genetic diseases; hornet; hypogammaglobulinemia; immunocompromised; immunocompromised patient; infective endocarditis; insect stings; mycoplasma; septic arthritis; vector-borne infections; x linked agammaglobulinemia

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for CDC-NCEZID Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center