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Cell Death Dis. 2018 Nov 15;9(12):1138. doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-1186-5.

PLOD3 promotes lung metastasis via regulation of STAT3.

Author information

1
Division of Radiation Biomedical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, 01812, Korea.
2
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 440-746, Korea.
3
Division of Radiation Biomedical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, 01812, Korea. eh140149@kirams.re.kr.
4
Division of Radiation Biomedical Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, 01812, Korea. sgh63@kcch.re.kr.

Abstract

Procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase (PLOD3), a membrane-bound homodimeric enzyme, hydroxylates lysyl residues in collagen-like peptides; however, its role in lung cancer is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of PLOD3 as a pro-metastatic factor and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. First, we experimentally confirmed the release of PLOD3 in circulation in animal models, rendering it a potential serum biomarker for lung cancer in humans. Thereafter, we investigated the effects of PLOD3 overexpression and downregulation on cancer cell invasion and migration in vitro and in vivo, using human lung cancer cell lines and a mouse tumor xenograft model, respectively. Further, PLOD3 levels were determined in lung tissue samples from lung cancer patients. Functional analyses revealed that PLOD3 interacts with STAT3, thereby expressing matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) to enhance tumor metastasis. PLOD3 and the STAT3 pathway were significantly correlated in the metastatic foci of lung cancer patients; PLOD3-STAT3 levels were highly correlated with a poor prognosis. These results indicate that PLOD3 promotes lung cancer metastasis in a RAS-MAP kinase pathway-independent manner. Therefore, secreted PLOD3 serves as a potent inducer of lung cancer metastasis and a potential therapeutic target to enhance survival in lung cancer.

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