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J Biomed Mater Res A. 2019 Jan;107(1):92-103. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.36535. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Biomimetic sponges for regeneration of skeletal muscle following trauma.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Parks College of Engineering, Aviation, and Technology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, 63103.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, 63103.


Skeletal muscle is inept in regenerating after traumatic injuries due to significant loss of basal lamina and the resident satellite cells. To improve regeneration of skeletal muscle, we have developed biomimetic sponges composed of collagen, gelatin, and laminin (LM)-111 that were crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). Collagen and LM-111 are crucial components of the muscle extracellular matrix and were chosen to impart bioactivity whereas gelatin and EDC were used to provide mechanical strength to the scaffold. Morphological and mechanical evaluation of the sponges showed porous structure, water-retention capacity and a compressive modulus of 590-808 kPa. The biomimetic sponges supported the infiltration and viability of C2 C12 myoblasts over 5 days of culture. The myoblasts produced higher levels of myokines such as VEGF, IL-6, and IGF-1 and showed higher expression of myogenic markers such as MyoD and myogenin on the biomimetic sponges. Biomimetic sponges implanted in a mouse model of volumetric muscle loss (VML) supported satellite, endothelial, and inflammatory cell infiltration but resulted in limited myofiber regeneration at 2 weeks post-injury.


extracellular matrix; myogenesis; volumetric muscle loss


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