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J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Feb;186:212-225. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.10.016. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Effects of lisdexamfetamine on plasma steroid concentrations compared with d-amphetamine in healthy subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Author information

1
Division of Molecular and Systems Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
2
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine and Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
3
Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Department of Biomedicine and Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address: matthias.liechti@usb.ch.
4
Division of Molecular and Systems Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address: alex.odermatt@unibas.ch.

Abstract

The novel d-amphetamine prodrug lisdexamfetamine is applied to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). d-Amphetamine releases dopamine and norepinephrine and stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may contribute to its reinforcing effects and risk of abuse. However, no data is currently available on the effects of lisdexamfetamine on circulating steroids. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study evaluated the effects of equimolar doses of d-amphetamine (40 mg) and lisdexamfetamine (100 mg) and placebo on circulating steroids in 24 healthy subjects. Plasma steroid and d-amphetamine levels were determined up to 24 h. Delayed increase and peak levels of plasma d-amphetamine concentrations were observed following lisdexamfetamine treatment compared with d-amphetamine administration, however the maximal concentrations and total exposure (area under the curve [AUC]) were similar. Lisdexamfetamine and d-amphetamine significantly enhanced plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, glucocorticoids (cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone, 11-dehydrocorticosterone, and 11-deoxycortisol), androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione [androstenedione]), and progesterone (only in men) compared with placebo. Steroid concentration-time curves were shifted to later time points due to a non-significantly later onset following lisdexamfetamine administration than after d-amphetamine, however maximal plasma steroid concentrations and AUCs did not differ between the active treatments. None of the active treatments altered plasma levels of the mineralocorticoids aldosterone and 11-deoxycorticosterone or the androgen testosterone compared with placebo. The effects of the amphetamines on glucocorticoid production were similar to those that were previously reported for methylphenidate (60 mg) but weaker than those for the serotonin releaser 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 125 mg) or direct serotonin receptor agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD; 0.2 mg). Lisdexamfetamine produced comparable HPA axis activation and had similar pharmacokinetics than d-amphetamine, except for a delayed time of onset. Thus, serotonin (MDMA, LSD) may more effectively stimulate the HPA axis than dopamine and norepinephrine (D-amphetamine).

KEYWORDS:

Amphetamine; Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Glucocorticoid; Lisdexamfetamine; Psychostimulant

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