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BMC Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 30;18(1):541. doi: 10.1186/s12879-018-3454-5.

The interaction between HIV testing social norms and self-efficacy on HIV testing among Chinese men who have sex with men: results from an online cross-sectional study.

Zhao P1, Liu L2, Zhang Y1, Cheng H3, Cao B4,5, Liu C4, Wang C1, Yang B1, Wei C6, Tucker JD4,5,7, Tang W8,9,10,11.

Author information

1
Dermatology Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.
2
Nanjing Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu, China.
3
The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
4
SESH study group of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Guangzhou, China.
5
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Project-China, Guangzhou, 510095, China.
6
Social and Behavioral Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.
7
School of Medicine of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
8
Dermatology Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. weimingtangscience@gmail.com.
9
SESH study group of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Guangzhou, China. weimingtangscience@gmail.com.
10
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Project-China, Guangzhou, 510095, China. weimingtangscience@gmail.com.
11
School of Medicine of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA. weimingtangscience@gmail.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Increasing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is critical for HIV control. This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between social norms and self-efficacy on HIV testing among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM).

METHODS:

We conducted an online survey in eight Chinese cities in Shandong and Guangdong Provinces in July 2016. We included participants who were born as a male, at least 16 years old, currently living in one of the designated cities, and had ever engaged in anal sex with a man. We collected information regarding socio-demographics, high-risk behaviors, and history of HIV and other STI testing. We coded sensitivity to social norms using six items asking participants about their perceived social norm regarding HIV testing. We coded HIV testing self-efficacy using a separate six-item scale. We interpreted higher mean scores as higher sensitivity to social norms and higher self-efficacy, respectively. We conducted logistic regressions to evaluate the interaction between self-efficacy and social norms on HIV testing.

RESULTS:

A total of 2105 men completed the survey. The mean age of the participants was 25.97 ± 6.42 years. Over four-fifths (85.9%) of participants were unmarried, 22.7% were students, and 64.6% at least had a college degree. 62.5 and 32.6% of participants ever and tested HIV in the last three months, respectively. With respect to uptake of HIV testing in the last three months, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.01(95% CI: 0.96-1.06) for higher sensitivity to social norms and 1.09 (95% CI: 1.05-1.14) for higher self-efficacy, with an interaction effect of 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.03), respectively. With respect to uptake of lifetime HIV testing, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.03(95% CI: 0.99-1.07) for higher sensitivity to social norms and 1.15 (95% CI: 1.11-1.19) for higher self-efficacy, with an interaction effect of 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.04), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our survey demonstrated that there is a significant association between the uptake of HIV testing with sensitivity to the social norm, higher self-efficacy, as well as the interaction between them. Tailored studies for improving HIV testing among MSM in China can combine these two interventions together.

KEYWORDS:

HIV testing; Men who have sex with men (MSM); Self-efficacy; Social norm

PMID:
30376818
PMCID:
PMC6208016
DOI:
10.1186/s12879-018-3454-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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