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Sci Rep. 2018 Oct 19;8(1):15503. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-33899-6.

Small non-coding RNA landscape of extracellular vesicles from human stem cells.

Author information

1
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
2
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt.
3
Helsinki Eye Lab, Ophthalmology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
4
Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, BioMediTech, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
5
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Diseases, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. bettina.mannerstrom@helsinki.fi.

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are reported to be involved in stem cell maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. Due to their bioactive cargoes influencing cell fate and function, interest in EVs in regenerative medicine has rapidly increased. EV-derived small non-coding RNA mimic the functions of the parent stem cells, regulating the maintenance and differentiation of stem cells, controlling the intercellular regulation of gene expression, and eventually affecting the cell fate. In this study, we used RNA sequencing to provide a comprehensive overview of the expression profiles of small non-coding transcripts carried by the EVs derived from human adipose tissue stromal/stem cells (AT-MSCs) and human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). Both hPSCs and AT-MSCs were characterized and their EVs were extracted using standard protocols. Small non-coding RNA sequencing from EVs showed that hPSCs and AT-MSCs showed distinct profiles, unique for each stem cell source. Interestingly, in hPSCs, most abundant miRNAs were from specific miRNA families regulating pluripotency, reprogramming and differentiation (miR-17-92, mir-200, miR-302/367, miR-371/373, CM19 microRNA cluster). For the AT-MSCs, the highly expressed miRNAs were found to be regulating osteogenesis (let-7/98, miR-10/100, miR-125, miR-196, miR-199, miR-615-3p, mir-22-3p, mir-24-3p, mir-27a-3p, mir-193b-5p, mir-195-3p). Additionally, abundant small nuclear and nucleolar RNA were detected in hPSCs, whereas Y- and tRNA were found in AT-MSCs. Identification of EV-miRNA and non-coding RNA signatures released by these stem cells will provide clues towards understanding their role in intracellular communication, and well as their roles in maintaining the stem cell niche.

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