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Sci Rep. 2018 Oct 17;8(1):15314. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-33686-3.

A comprehensive anatomical map of the peripheral octopaminergic/tyraminergic system of Drosophila melanogaster.

Author information

1
Neurobiology and Genetics, Theodor-Boveri Institute, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, D-97074, Würzburg, Germany.
2
Zoology II, Theodor-Boveri Institute, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, D-97074, Würzburg, Germany.
3
Neurobiology and Genetics, Theodor-Boveri Institute, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, D-97074, Würzburg, Germany. mareike.selcho@uni-wuerzburg.de.

Abstract

The modulation of an animal's behavior through external sensory stimuli, previous experience and its internal state is crucial to survive in a constantly changing environment. In most insects, octopamine (OA) and its precursor tyramine (TA) modulate a variety of physiological processes and behaviors by shifting the organism from a relaxed or dormant condition to a responsive, excited and alerted state. Even though OA/TA neurons of the central brain are described on single cell level in Drosophila melanogaster, the periphery was largely omitted from anatomical studies. Given that OA/TA is involved in behaviors like feeding, flying and locomotion, which highly depend on a variety of peripheral organs, it is necessary to study the peripheral connections of these neurons to get a complete picture of the OA/TA circuitry. We here describe the anatomy of this aminergic system in relation to peripheral tissues of the entire fly. OA/TA neurons arborize onto skeletal muscles all over the body and innervate reproductive organs, the heart, the corpora allata, and sensory organs in the antennae, legs, wings and halteres underlining their relevance in modulating complex behaviors.

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