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Sci Rep. 2018 Oct 8;8(1):14975. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-33207-2.

Probing the origin of matching functional jaws: roles of Dlx5/6 in cranial neural crest cells.

Author information

1
Department of Physiological Chemistry and Metabolism, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.
2
Evolution des Régulations Endocriniennes, CNRS, UMR7221, Dept. AVIV, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
3
Isotope Science Center and Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 153-8904, Japan.
4
Department of Physiological Chemistry and Metabolism, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan. kuri-tky@umin.net.
5
Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, 102-0076, Japan. kuri-tky@umin.net.
6
Evolution des Régulations Endocriniennes, CNRS, UMR7221, Dept. AVIV, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. glevi@mnhn.fr.

Abstract

Gnathostome jaws derive from the first pharyngeal arch (PA1), a complex structure constituted by Neural Crest Cells (NCCs), mesodermal, ectodermal and endodermal cells. Here, to determine the regionalized morphogenetic impact of Dlx5/6 expression, we specifically target their inactivation or overexpression to NCCs. NCC-specific Dlx5/6 inactivation (NCC∆Dlx5/6) generates severely hypomorphic lower jaws that present typical maxillary traits. Therefore, differently from Dlx5/6 null-embryos, the upper and the lower jaws of NCC∆Dlx5/6 mice present a different size. Reciprocally, forced Dlx5 expression in maxillary NCCs provokes the appearance of distinct mandibular characters in the upper jaw. We conclude that: (1) Dlx5/6 activation in NCCs invariably determines lower jaw identity; (2) the morphogenetic processes that generate functional matching jaws depend on the harmonization of Dlx5/6 expression in NCCs and in distinct ectodermal territories. The co-evolution of synergistic opposing jaws requires the coordination of distinct regulatory pathways involving the same transcription factors in distant embryonic territories.

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