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Acta Biomater. 2019 Jan 1;83:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.09.056. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

The inflammasome in host response to biomaterials: Bridging inflammation and tissue regeneration.

Author information

1
i3S - Instituto de Inovação e Investigação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-125 Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-125 Porto, Portugal; ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.
2
ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal; UMIB - Unit for Multidisciplinary Biomedical Research of ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas de Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.
3
Molecular Inflammation Group, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca), Hospital Clínico Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Carretera Buenavista, 30120 Murcia, Spain. Electronic address: pablo.pelegrin@imib.es.
4
i3S - Instituto de Inovação e Investigação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-125 Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-125 Porto, Portugal; ICBAS - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: judite@ineb.up.pt.

Abstract

The development of new biomaterials to be used in tissue engineering applications is creating new solutions for a range of healthcare problems. The trend in biomaterials research has shifted from biocompatible "immune-evasive" biomaterials to "immune-interactive" materials that modulate the inflammatory response supporting implant integration as well as improving healing and tissue regeneration. Inflammasomes are large intracellular multiprotein complexes that are key players in host defence during innate immune responses and assemble after recognition of pathogens or danger signals. The process of biomaterial implantation causes injury to tissues that will consequently release danger signals that could be sensed by the inflammasome. There are increasing evidences that the inflammasome has a role in several inflammatory processes, from pathogen clearance to chronic inflammation or tissue repair. Thus, modulation of the inflammasome activity appears as an important target in the development of effective approaches in regenerative medicine. In this review, we discuss the main points of the current understanding on the host response to implanted biomaterials and how the paradigm of "immune-evasive" biomaterials has shifted over the last years; the significance of the inflammasome in the inflammatory response to biomaterials; and the growing idea that the immune system is of key importance in an effective tissue repair and regeneration. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: We herein discuss the main points of the current understanding on the host response to implanted biomaterials and how the paradigm of "immune-evasive" biomaterials has shifted to "immune-interactive" over the last years; the significance of the inflammasome in the inflammatory response to biomaterials; and the growing idea that the immune system is of key importance in an effective tissue repair and regeneration, supporting the emerging concept of Regenerative Immunology. The inflammasome is a recent and central concept in immunology research. Since the beginning of this century the inflammasome is viewed as key platform of the innate immune response. We believe that, successful modulation of the inflammasome activity will become a milestone in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

KEYWORDS:

Biomaterial; Immunomodulation; Inflammasome; Inflammation; Regenerative medicine

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