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Clin Oral Implants Res. 2018 Oct;29(10):1016-1024. doi: 10.1111/clr.13368. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Diagnostic accuracy of the implant stability quotient in monitoring progressive peri-implant bone loss: An experimental study in dogs.

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Department of Oral Surgery and Stomatology, ZMK School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
Department of Periodontology, International University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
Department of Oral Surgery and Implant Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
Private Practice, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, CICOM, Badajoz, Spain.
School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago, Spain.
Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.



To investigate the impact of progressive bone loss in an experimental peri-implantitis model in the dog upon the implant stability quotient (ISQ) measured in the course of induced and spontaneous conditions of disease, and to evaluate the association between the clinical parameters and ISQ.


Seventy-two implants were placed in 12 Beagle dogs. Of these, 36 implants in six dogs were assessed during ligature-induced peri-implantitis (three timepoints) and at one timepoint following a period of spontaneous progression. The ISQ was recorded using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Furthermore, the clinical peri-implant parameters were registered at four sites per implant at each timepoint. Marginal bone loss (MBL) was determined using computed tomography at four sites per implant and bone-to-implant contact (BIC) was assessed from histological samples. A linear regression model was estimated by generalized estimation equations (GEEs) in order to study the MBL-ISQ values at each measurement timepoint. Pearson's correlation test was applied.


None of the implants failed during the study period. At implant level, a strong negative correlation was found for all timepoints between ISQ and MBL (r = -0.58; p < 0.001). Accordingly, as follow-up progressed, lower ISQ and higher MBL values were observed. A prediction of MBL depending on the ISQ values and timepoints showed a decrease in one ISQ unit to be related to ~1 mm of MBL. Likewise, a statistically significant correlation was found between BIC and ISQ evaluated after spontaneous chronification of peri-implantitis (r = 0.34; p = 0.04). Nevertheless, the ISQ values failed to correlate to any of the clinical parameters recorded.


Resonance frequency analysis seems accurate in diagnosing progressive bone loss, as a statistically significant decrease in ISQ was recorded in the course of peri-implant disease. Nevertheless, the clinical relevance of this observation as a diagnostic tool is debatable, since implant stability remains high.


dental implants; diagnostic resonance frequency analysis; implant stability; peri-implant mucositis; peri-implantitis


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