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Environ Res. 2019 Jan;168:14-24. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.09.022. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Wastewater used for urban agriculture in West Africa as a reservoir for antibacterial resistance dissemination.

Author information

1
Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK; Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon.
2
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University Ouaga I Pr Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso.
3
Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
4
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde, Cameroon.
5
Department of Soil Science, University of Trier, D-54286 Trier, Germany.
6
Institute of Microbiology and Infection, University of Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. Electronic address: l.j.v.piddock@bham.ac.uk.

Abstract

State of art metagenomics were used to investigate the microbial population, antibiotic resistance genes and plasmids of medical interest in wastewater used for urban agriculture in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Wastewater samples were collected from three canals near agricultural fields in three neighbourhoods. Assessment of microbial population diversity revealed different microbial patterns among the different samples. Sequencing reads from the wastewaters revealed different functional specializations of microbial communities, with the predominance of carbohydrates and proteins metabolism functions. Eleven pathogen-specific and 56 orthologous virulence factor genes were detected in the wastewater samples. These virulence factors are usually found in human pathogens that cause gastroenteritis and/or diarrhoea. A wide range of antibiotic resistance genes was identified; 81 are transmissible by mobile genetic elements. These included seven different extended spectrum β-lactamase genes encoding synthesis of four enzyme families, including two metallo-β-lactamases (blaAIM-1 and blaGES-21). Ten different incompatibility groups of Enterobacteriaceae plasmid replicons (ColE, FIB, FIC, FII, P, Q, R, U, Y, and A/C), and 30 plasmid replicon types from Gram-positive bacteria. All are implicated in the wide distribution of antibiotic resistance genes. We conclude that wastewater used for urban agriculture in the city represents a high risk for spreading bacteria and antimicrobial resistance among humans and animals.

KEYWORDS:

Antimicrobial resistance; Low and middle-income countries; Metagenomics; Urban agriculture

PMID:
30253312
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2018.09.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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