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Am J Med Genet A. 2018 Dec;176(12):2829-2834. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.40533. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Identification of novel PIEZO1 variants using prenatal exome sequencing and correlation to ultrasound and autopsy findings of recurrent hydrops fetalis.

Author information

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
2
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA Clinical Genomics Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
3
Department of Psychiatry, Prenatal Diagnosis Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
4
Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.
5
Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Abstract

Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is a rare disorder with a high perinatal mortality of at least 50%. One cause of NIHF is generalized lymphatic dysplasia (GLD), a rare form of primary lymphedema of the extremities and systemic involvement including chylothoraces and pericardial effusions. An autosomal recessive form of GLD has been described, caused by variants in the PIEZO1 gene. It has been reported clinically to cause NIHF and childhood onset of facial and limb lymphedema, most of which were diagnosed postnatally. We present a case of a woman with recurrent pregnancies affected by NIHF because of novel compound heterozygous variants in the PIEZO1 gene diagnosed prenatally using exome sequencing (ES). Two variants in PIEZO1 (c.3206G>A and c.6208A>C) were identified that were inherited from the father and mother, and are predicted to cause a nonsense and missense change, respectively, in the PIEZO1 subunits. Ultrasound demonstrated severe bilateral pleural effusions, whole body edema and polyhydramnios. Histopathology revealed an increased number of lymphatic channels, many of which showed failure of luminal canalization. Sanger sequencing confirmed the same variants in a prior fetal demise. We provide phenotypic correlation with ultrasound and autopsy finding, review PIEZO1 variants as a cause of GLD and discuss the uses of prenatal ES to date.

KEYWORDS:

PIEZO1 variants; exome sequencing; generalized lymphatic dysplasia; hydrops fetalis; prenatal diagnosis

PMID:
30244526
DOI:
10.1002/ajmg.a.40533

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