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Psychiatry Investig. 2018 Sep;15(9):907-913. doi: 10.30773/pi.2018.05.23. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Protein Kinase C Activity and Delayed Recovery of Sleep-Wake Cycle in Mouse Model of Bipolar Disorder.

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Department of Psychiatry and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea.
Department of Psychiatry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Republic of Korea.
Department of Psychiatry, Dong-A University School of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.
Department of Psychiatry, Dongrae Hospital, Busan, Republic of Korea.



Previous studies reported the delayed recovery group after circadian rhythm disruption in mice showed higher quinpiroleinduced locomotor activity. This study aimed to compare not only Protein Kinase C (PKC) activities in frontal, striatal, hippocampus and cerebellum, but also relative PKC activity ratios among brain regions according to recovery of circadian rhythm.


The circadian rhythm disruption protocol was applied to eight-week-old twenty male Institute Cancer Research mice. The circadian rhythm recovery patterns were collected through motor activities measured by Mlog system. Depressive and manic proneness were examined by forced swim test and quinpirole-induced open field test respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was employed to measure PKC activities.


The delayed recovery group presented greater locomotor activities than the early recovery group (p=0.033). The delayed recovery group had significantly lower frontal PKC activity than the other (p=0.041). The former showed lower frontal/cerebellar PKC activity ratio (p=0.047) but higher striatal/frontal (p=0.038) and hippocampal/frontal (p=0.007) PKC activities ratios than the latter.


These findings support potential mechanism of delayed recovery after circadian disruption in bipolar animal model could be an alteration of relative PKC activities among mood regulation related brain regions. It is required to investigate the PKC downstream signaling related to the delayed recovery pattern.


Bipolar disorder; Circadian rhythm; Open field test; Protein Kinase C; Quinpirole

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