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PLoS Biol. 2018 Sep 10;16(9):e2006347. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2006347. eCollection 2018 Sep.

Transcriptional outcomes and kinetic patterning of gene expression in response to NF-κB activation.

Author information

Gene Regulation Section, Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Immunology, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
Gene Expression and Genomics Unit, Laboratory of Genetics and Genomics, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.


Transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) regulates cellular responses to environmental cues. Many stimuli induce NF-κB transiently, making time-dependent transcriptional outputs a fundamental feature of NF-κB activation. Here we show that NF-κB target genes have distinct kinetic patterns in activated B lymphoma cells. By combining RELA binding, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) recruitment, and perturbation of NF-κB activation, we demonstrate that kinetic differences amongst early- and late-activated RELA target genes can be understood based on chromatin configuration prior to cell activation and RELA-dependent priming, respectively. We also identified genes that were repressed by RELA activation and others that responded to RELA-activated transcription factors. Cumulatively, our studies define an NF-κB-responsive inducible gene cascade in activated B cells.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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