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Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2018 Aug 25;56:637-677. doi: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-080615-100327.

World Management of Geminiviruses.

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Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA; email: , ,
National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan.
World Vegetable Center, Shanhua, Tainan, Taiwan 74199.
Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Cinvestav), Unidad Irapuato, Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico 36821.
Departamento de Fitopatologia/Bioagro, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais 36570-900, Brazil.
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Fort Pierce, Florida 34945, USA.
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania.
Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala BioCenter and Linnean Center for Plant Biology in Uppsala, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Salinas, California 93905, USA.
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, and Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, UMR Biologie et Génétique des Interactions Plante-Parasite, F-34398 Montpellier, France.
Department of Vegetable Research, Institute of Plant Sciences, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Rishon LeZion 7505101, Israel.
Computational Biology Division, Department of Integrative Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa.
Instituto de Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterránea "La Mayora," Universidad de Málaga-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientficas (IHSM-UMA-CSIC), Estación Experimental "La Mayora," Algarrobo-Costa, Málaga 29750, Spain.
Embrapa Vegetables, Brasilia, DF 70359-970, Brazil.


Management of geminiviruses is a worldwide challenge because of the widespread distribution of economically important diseases caused by these viruses. Regardless of the type of agriculture, management is most effective with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that involves measures before, during, and after the growing season. This includes starting with resistant cultivars and virus- and vector-free transplants and propagative plants. For high value vegetables, protected culture (e.g., greenhouses and screenhouses) allows for effective management but is limited owing to high cost. Protection of young plants in open fields is provided by row covers, but other measures are typically required. Measures that are used for crops in open fields include roguing infected plants and insect vector management. Application of insecticide to manage vectors (whiteflies and leafhoppers) is the most widely used measure but can cause undesirable environmental and human health issues. For annual crops, these measures can be more effective when combined with host-free periods of two to three months. Finally, given the great diversity of the viruses, their insect vectors, and the crops affected, IPM approaches need to be based on the biology and ecology of the virus and vector and the crop production system. Here, we present the general measures that can be used in an IPM program for geminivirus diseases, specific case studies, and future challenges.


Bemisia tabaci; begomoviruses; curtoviruses; grablovirus; insect-transmitted viruses; integrated pest management; mastreviruses

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