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BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 8;8(8):e021623. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-021623.

Maternal anemia and underweight as determinants of pregnancy outcomes: cohort study in eastern rural Maharashtra, India.

Author information

1
Lata Medical Research Foundation, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
2
Boston University School of Public Health and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

To study the trend in the prevalence of anaemia and low BMI among pregnant women from Eastern Maharashtra and evaluate if low BMI and anaemia affect pregnancy outcomes.

DESIGN:

Prospective observational cohort study.

SETTING:

Catchment areas of 20 rural primary health centres in four eastern districts of Maharashtra State, India.

PARTICIPANTS:

72 750 women from the Nagpur site of Maternal and Newborn Health Registry of NIH's Global Network, enrolled from 2009 to 2016.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Mode of delivery, pregnancy related complications at delivery, stillbirths, neonatal deaths and low birth weight (LBW) in babies.

RESULTS:

Over 90% of the women included in the study were anaemic and over a third were underweight (BMI <18 kg/m2) and with both conditions. Mild anaemia at any time during delivery significantly increased the risk (Risk ratio; 95% confidence interval (RR;(95% CI)) of stillbirth (1.3 (1.1-1.6)), neonatal deaths (1.3 (1-1.6)) and LBW babies (1.1 (1-1.2)). The risks became even more significant and increased further with moderate/severe anaemia any time during pregnancy for stillbirth (1.4 (1.2-1.8)), neonatal deaths (1.7 (1.3-2.1)) and LBW babies (1.3 (1.2-1.4)).,. Underweight at anytime during pregnancy increased the risk of neonatal deaths (1.1 (1-1.3)) and LBW babies (1.2;(1.2-1.3)).The risk of having stillbirths (1.5;(1.2-1.8)), neonatal deaths (1.7;(1.3-2.3)) and LBW babies (1.5;(1.4-1.6)) was highest when - the anaemia and underweight co-existed in the included women. Obesity/overweight during pregnancy increased the risk of maternal complications at delivery (1.6;(1.5-1.7)) and of caesarean section (1.5;(1.4-1.6)) and reduced the risk of LBW babies 0.8 (0.8-0.9)).

CONCLUSION:

Maternal anaemia is associated with enhanced risk of stillbirth, neonatal deaths and LBW. The risks increased if anaemia and underweight were present simultaneously.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:

NCT01073475.

KEYWORDS:

anemia; body mass index; malnutrition; neonatal deaths; pregnancy; stillbirth

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