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J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc. 2018 Aug 6;19(3):158-164. doi: 10.4274/jtgga.2018.0090. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

New insights on the pathogenesis of endometriosis and novel non-surgical therapies

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Udayan University, Sangah Hospital, Bali, Indonesia


Endometriosis is a disease of theories, but none has succeeded to explain the whole picture. Most widely available drugs for endometriosis aim to relieve symptoms and improve fertility. Unfortunately, many short and long-term side-effects are associated with the treatments. To overcome this problem, researchers have developed many novel therapeutic agents, including non-invasive technique. We aim to provide new insights on pathogenesis model and novel non-surgical treatments for endometriosis, including drugs already available in the market and also drugs which are still under research. Seven novel treatment modalities are recognized, namely dienogest, aromatase inhibitor (AI), gonadotrophine-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist, anti tumor necrosing factor (TNF)-α, selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM), and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Dienogest, AI, and GnRH antagonists are effective novel treatments with good tolerance and safety. SERM and SPRM show inconsistent results, while anti-TNF-α is still in the animal experimental stage. HIFU is a potential futuristic treatment. However, it is still a long way until this technology is truly applicable.


Endometriosis, novel therapy, non-invasive

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