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Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2018 May-Jun;29(3):567-577. doi: 10.4103/1319-2442.235178.

Prevalence of cardiac arrhythmia and risk factors in chronic kidney disease patients.

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Department of Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.
Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.
Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients have a high risk for cardiac arrhythmia. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmia in CKD patients and to evaluate the relationship between arrhythmia and biochemical and echocardiographic parameters. CKD patients between 18 and 80 years of age were enrolled from the nephrology outpatient clinic. Physical examination, complete blood count, urinalysis biochemical analysis, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and 24-h Holter electrocardiogram were performed. Patients with and without cardiac arrhythmia were compared regarding their characteristics, laboratory findings, and echocardiographic parameters. Risk factors for cardiac arrhythmia were also evaluated. The carotid intima-media thickness was measured using Doppler ultrasonography. In our study involving 59 patients, 44 (74%) had atrial arrhythmia (AA) and 40 (68%) had ventricular arrhythmia (VA). Atrial and/or VA were diagnosed in 46 patients (78%), of whom six (10.2%) had AA, two (3.4%) had VA and 38 (64.4%) had AA plus VA. Atrial fibrillation (AF) was present in two patients (3.4%) in the form of paroxysmal AF. Risk factors for AA were low calcium level and posterior wall thickness, while factors associated with VA were age, triglyceride level, leukocyte count, and nonusage of angiotensin 2 receptor blockers. Risk factors for AA and/or VA included increased platelet count, age, and leukocyte count. AA and/or VA were found in as high as 78% of CKD patients. Further studies evaluating course of the disease from early stages are needed to identify risk factors.

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