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Science. 2018 Jun 15;360(6394):1222-1227. doi: 10.1126/science.aar2578. Epub 2018 May 31.

Normative brain size variation and brain shape diversity in humans.

Author information

1
Developmental Neurogenomics Unit, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
2
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, Oxford University, UK.
3
Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
5
Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
6
Cerebral Imaging Center, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
7
Department of Biological and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
8
Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
9
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
10
Department of Psychiatry, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
11
Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
12
Mouse Imaging Center, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.
13
Developmental Neurogenomics Unit, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA. raznahana@mail.nih.gov.

Abstract

Brain size variation over primate evolution and human development is associated with shifts in the proportions of different brain regions. Individual brain size can vary almost twofold among typically developing humans, but the consequences of this for brain organization remain poorly understood. Using in vivo neuroimaging data from more than 3000 individuals, we find that larger human brains show greater areal expansion in distributed frontoparietal cortical networks and related subcortical regions than in limbic, sensory, and motor systems. This areal redistribution recapitulates cortical remodeling across evolution, manifests by early childhood in humans, and is linked to multiple markers of heightened metabolic cost and neuronal connectivity. Thus, human brain shape is systematically coupled to naturally occurring variations in brain size through a scaling map that integrates spatiotemporally diverse aspects of neurobiology.

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PMID:
29853553
DOI:
10.1126/science.aar2578
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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