Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Toxicol Lett. 2018 Jul;291:173-183. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.04.013. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Evaluating the genotoxicity of cellulose nanofibrils in a co-culture of human lung epithelial cells and monocyte-derived macrophages.

Author information

1
Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge (INSA), Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, National School of Public Health, NOVA University of Lisbon (UNL), Lisbon, Portugal; Center for Toxicogenomics and Human Health (ToxOmics), NOVA Medical School-FCM, UNL, Lisbon, Portugal.
2
CIEPQPF, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
3
Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, National School of Public Health, NOVA University of Lisbon (UNL), Lisbon, Portugal; CISP - Public Health Research Center, Lisbon, Portugal.
4
Department of Human Genetics, National Institute of Health Doutor Ricardo Jorge (INSA), Lisbon, Portugal; Center for Toxicogenomics and Human Health (ToxOmics), NOVA Medical School-FCM, UNL, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address: m.joao.silva@insa.min-saude.pt.

Abstract

Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are manufactured nanofibres that hold impressive expectations in forest, food, pharmaceutical, and biomedical industries. CNF production and applications are leading to an increased human exposure and thereby it is of utmost importance to assess its safety to health. In this study, we screened the cytotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic effects of a CNF produced by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of an industrial bleached Eucalyptus globulus kraft pulp on a co-culture of lung epithelial alveolar (A549) cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1 cells). The results indicated that low CNF concentrations can stimulate A549 cells proliferation, whereas higher concentrations are moderately toxic. Moreover, no proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β was detected in the co-culture medium suggesting no immunotoxicity. Although CNF treatment did not induce sizable levels of DNA damage in A549 cells, it leaded to micronuclei formation at 1.5 and 3 μg/cm2. These findings suggest that this type of CNF is genotoxic through aneugenic or clastogenic mechanisms. Noteworthy, cell overgrowth and genotoxicity, which are events relevant for cell malignant transformation, were observed at low CNF concentration levels, which are more realistic and relevant for human exposure, e.g., in occupational settings.

KEYWORDS:

Cellulose nanofibrils; Comet assay; Immunotoxicity; Micronucleus assay; Safety assessment

PMID:
29679712
DOI:
10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.04.013
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center