Send to

Choose Destination
J Virus Erad. 2018 Jan 1;4(1):41-47.

HIV-associated cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment in a Thai cohort on long-term cART.

Author information

HIV-NAT, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand.
Department of Statistics, Maejo University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Faculty of Economics, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA.



To assess cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment in an HIV-positive cohort, well-suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in an Asian resource-limited setting.


Cross-sectional sociodemographic and cognitive data were collected in 329 HIV-positive and 510 HIV-negative participants. Cognitive performance was assessed using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), WAIS-III Digit Symbol, Trail Making A, and Grooved Pegboard (both hands). Psychomotor test scores in the HIV-positive participants were converted to Z-scores using scores of the HIV-negative participants as normative data. Psychomotor impairment was defined as performance on two tests more than 1 standard deviation (SD) from controls or more than 2 SD on one test. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between HIV and non-HIV-related covariates and poorer cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment.


HIV-positive participants, mean age 45 (SD 7.69) years received cART for a median of 12.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 9.1-14.4). Median CD4 cell count was 563 cells/mm3 (IQR 435-725), and 92.77% had plasma HIV RNA <40 copies/mL. The adjusted mean differences between HIV-positive versus HIV-negative cohorts indicated significantly inferior cognitive performance (tests all P<0.001) with increasing age and lower income, independently associated. Psychomotor impairment was found (P<0.02) in all tests except the Grooved Pegboard non-dominant hand (P=0.48). Psychomotor impairment prevalence was 43% in the HIV-positive cohort, associated with male gender and lower income.


In this study, in individuals with viral suppression rates >90% on long-term cART, we found that inferior cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment were primarily associated with non-HIV-related factors.


cognitive performance, psychomotor impairment, Asia, HIV-infection, HAND


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center