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Curr Transplant Rep. 2018;5(1):14-18. doi: 10.1007/s40472-018-0177-x. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Roadblocks in the Path of iPSC to the Clinic.

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1Pluripotent stem cells and activation of endogenous tissue programs for organ regeneration (PR Lab), Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
2Universidad Católica San Antonio de Murcia (UCAM), Campus de los Jerónimos, 135 Guadalupe, 30107 Murcia, Spain.
Networking Biomedical Research Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid, Spain.
4Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA.


Purpose of Review:

The goal of this paper is to highlight the major challenges in the translation of human pluripotent stem cells into a clinical setting.

Recent Findings:

Innate features from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) positioned these patient-specific cells as an unprecedented cell source for regenerative medicine applications. Immunogenicity of differentiated iPSCs requires more research towards the definition of common criteria for the evaluation of innate and host immune responses as well as in the generation of standardized protocols for iPSC generation and differentiation. The coming years will resolve ongoing clinical trials using both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and hiPSCs providing exciting information for the optimization of potential clinical applications of stem cell therapies.


Rapid advances in the field of iPSCs generated high expectations in the field of regenerative medicine. Understanding therapeutic applications of iPSCs certainly needs further investigation on autologous/allogenic iPSC transplantation.


Human embryonic stem cells; Immunogenicity; Induced pluripotent stem cells

Conflict of interest statement

Compliance with Ethical StandardsJuan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte, Sonia Sanchez, and Jeronima Lajara declares no conflict of interest. Nuria Montserrat reports grants from Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), during the conduct of the study. Elena Garreta reports receiving grants during the course of the study, but declares no conflict of interest.This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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