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Int J Health Geogr. 2018 Mar 20;17(1):8. doi: 10.1186/s12942-018-0128-x.

Intelligent judgements over health risks in a spatial agent-based model.

Author information

Department of Governance and Technology for Sustainability (CSTM), Faculty of Behavioral, Management, and Social Sciences (BMS), University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Department of Computer Science, College of Science, University of Duhok (UoD), Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Department of Geo-Information Process (GIP), Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Faculty of Science, University of Zakho (UoZ), Duhok, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Department of Governance and Technology for Sustainability (CSTM), Faculty of Behavioral, Management, and Social Sciences (BMS), University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
School of Systems, Management and Leadership, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, Australia.



Millions of people worldwide are exposed to deadly infectious diseases on a regular basis. Breaking news of the Zika outbreak for instance, made it to the main media titles internationally. Perceiving disease risks motivate people to adapt their behavior toward a safer and more protective lifestyle. Computational science is instrumental in exploring patterns of disease spread emerging from many individual decisions and interactions among agents and their environment by means of agent-based models. Yet, current disease models rarely consider simulating dynamics in risk perception and its impact on the adaptive protective behavior. Social sciences offer insights into individual risk perception and corresponding protective actions, while machine learning provides algorithms and methods to capture these learning processes. This article presents an innovative approach to extend agent-based disease models by capturing behavioral aspects of decision-making in a risky context using machine learning techniques. We illustrate it with a case of cholera in Kumasi, Ghana, accounting for spatial and social risk factors that affect intelligent behavior and corresponding disease incidents. The results of computational experiments comparing intelligent with zero-intelligent representations of agents in a spatial disease agent-based model are discussed.


We present a spatial disease agent-based model (ABM) with agents' behavior grounded in Protection Motivation Theory. Spatial and temporal patterns of disease diffusion among zero-intelligent agents are compared to those produced by a population of intelligent agents. Two Bayesian Networks (BNs) designed and coded using R and are further integrated with the NetLogo-based Cholera ABM. The first is a one-tier BN1 (only risk perception), the second is a two-tier BN2 (risk and coping behavior).


We run three experiments (zero-intelligent agents, BN1 intelligence and BN2 intelligence) and report the results per experiment in terms of several macro metrics of interest: an epidemic curve, a risk perception curve, and a distribution of different types of coping strategies over time.


Our results emphasize the importance of integrating behavioral aspects of decision making under risk into spatial disease ABMs using machine learning algorithms. This is especially relevant when studying cumulative impacts of behavioral changes and possible intervention strategies.


Bayesian networks; Cholera; Disease diffusion; Emergent behavior; Learning; Protection motivation theory

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