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Sex Transm Dis. 2018 Apr;45(4):266-271. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000745.

High Baseline Anal Human Papillomavirus and Abnormal Anal Cytology in a Phase 3 Trial of the Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals Older Than 26 Years: ACTG 5298.



The quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (qHPV; types 6, 11, 16, 18) is indicated for men and women aged 9 to 26 years to prevent HPV associated anogenital high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and cancer. ACTG 5298 was a randomized placebo controlled Phase 3 study in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men, and women of qHPV to prevent persistent anal HPV infection. Baseline data are presented here.


Human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men, and women 27 years or older without previous anogenital or oral cancer were enrolled. Baseline anal cytology, high-resolution anoscopy and collection of anal, oral, and vaginal specimens for HPV genotyping were performed and acceptability assessed.


Five hundred seventy-five (575) participants were enrolled (82% men and 18% women). Median age was 47 years. Race/ethnicity was 46% white, 31% black, and 20% Hispanic. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was less than 50 copies/mL in 83% and median CD4 T count was 602 cells/μL. Abnormal anal cytology was detected in 62%, with corresponding HSIL on biopsy (bHSIL) in 33%. Anal HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 were detected in 25%, 13%, 32%, and 18% of the participants, respectively. Prevalence of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 qHPV types was 40%, 38%, 17%, 4%, and 1%, respectively. Oral infection with 1 or more qHPV type was detected in 10% of the participants. Study procedures were generally acceptable.


At study baseline, there was a high prevalence of abnormal anal cytology, bHSIL, and HPV infection. Sixty percent of the participants had anal infection with preventable qHPV types.

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