Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Nutr. 2018 Jan 1;148(1):77-85. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxx020.

Short-Term Overfeeding with Dairy Cream Does Not Modify Gut Permeability, the Fecal Microbiota, or Glucose Metabolism in Young Healthy Men.

Author information

1
Else Kröner-Fresenius-Center of Nutritional Medicine, ZIEL Institute for FOOD and Health, Chair of Analytical Food Chemistry, and Chair of Nutrition and Immunology, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
2
ZIEL Institute for FOOD and Health, Chair of Analytical Food Chemistry, and Chair of Nutrition and Immunology, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
3
Charité-Universitätsmedizin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Hepatologie und Gastroenterologie, Berlin, Germany.
4
Chair of Analytical Food Chemistry, and Chair of Nutrition and Immunology, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
5
Institute of Medical Microbiology, RWTH University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.
6
Diabetes Research Group, Medical Department 4, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität, Munich, Germany.
7
Clinical Cooperation Group Type 2 Diabetes, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.
8
Diabetes Research Group, German Center for Diabetes Research, Munich, Germany.
9
Chair of Nutrition and Immunology, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.
10
Institute of Nutritional Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Abstract

Background:

High-fat diets (HFDs) have been linked to low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance.

Objective:

The main purpose of the present study was to assess whether acute overfeeding with an HFD affects insulin sensitivity, gut barrier function, and fecal microbiota in humans.

Methods:

In a prospective intervention study, 24 healthy men [mean ± SD: age 23.0 ± 2.8 y, body mass index (in kg/m2) 23.0 ± 2.1] received an HFD (48% of energy from fat) with an additional 1000 kcal/d (as whipping cream) above their calculated energy expenditure for 7 d. Insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp), gut permeability (sugar and polyethylene glycol absorption tests, plasma zonulin), and gut microbiota profiles (high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing) were assessed before and after overfeeding, and 14 d after intervention. Additionally, inflammation markers such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, leptin, high-molecular-weight adiponectin, calprotectin, regulated on activation normal, T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were measured in plasma by ELISA. Finally, lipid parameters were analyzed in serum by a laboratory service.

Results:

Although participants gained 0.9 ± 0.6 kg (P < 0.001) body weight, overnutrition was not associated with a significant change in insulin sensitivity (M value and glucose disposal). Overfeeding for 7 d resulted in elevated serum total (10.2%), LDL (14.6%) and HDL (14.8%) cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.01). In contrast, fasting plasma triglyceride significantly declined (29.3%) during overfeeding (P < 0.001). In addition, there were no significant changes in inflammatory markers. Urine excretion of 4 sugars and polyethylene glycol, used as a proxy for gut permeability, and plasma concentration of zonulin, a marker of paracellular gut permeability, were unchanged. Moreover, overfeeding was not associated with consistent changes in gut microbiota profiles, but marked alterations were observed in a subgroup of 6 individuals.

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that short-term overfeeding with an HFD does not significantly impair insulin sensitivity and gut permeability in normal-weight healthy men, and that changes in dominant communities of fecal bacteria occur only in certain individuals. The study was registered in the German Clinical Trial Register as DRKS00006211.

KEYWORDS:

gut barrier function; gut permeability; high-fat diet; hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; inflammation; insulin sensitivity; intestinal microbiota; lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; overfeeding; zonulin

PMID:
29378051
DOI:
10.1093/jn/nxx020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center