Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Cell Death Differ. 2018 Mar;25(3):486-541. doi: 10.1038/s41418-017-0012-4. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018.

Galluzzi L1,2,3, Vitale I4,5, Aaronson SA6, Abrams JM7, Adam D8, Agostinis P9, Alnemri ES10, Altucci L11, Amelio I12, Andrews DW13,14,15, Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli M16, Antonov AV12, Arama E17, Baehrecke EH18, Barlev NA19, Bazan NG20, Bernassola F21, Bertrand MJM22,23, Bianchi K24, Blagosklonny MV25, Blomgren K26,27, Borner C28,29, Boya P30, Brenner C31,32, Campanella M4,5,33,34, Candi E16,21, Carmona-Gutierrez D35, Cecconi F4,36,37, Chan FK38, Chandel NS39, Cheng EH40, Chipuk JE6, Cidlowski JA41, Ciechanover A42, Cohen GM43, Conrad M44, Cubillos-Ruiz JR45,46, Czabotar PE47,48, D'Angiolella V49, Dawson TM50,51,52,53, Dawson VL50,51,53,54, De Laurenzi V55, De Maria R56, Debatin KM57, DeBerardinis RJ58, Deshmukh M59, Di Daniele N60, Di Virgilio F61, Dixit VM62, Dixon SJ63, Duckett CS64, Dynlacht BD65,66, El-Deiry WS67,68, Elrod JW69, Fimia GM70,71, Fulda S72,73,74, García-Sáez AJ75, Garg AD9, Garrido C76,77,78, Gavathiotis E79,80,81,82, Golstein P83, Gottlieb E42,84, Green DR85, Greene LA86, Gronemeyer H87,88,89,90, Gross A91, Hajnoczky G92, Hardwick JM93, Harris IS94, Hengartner MO95, Hetz C96,97,98, Ichijo H99, Jäättelä M100, Joseph B101, Jost PJ102, Juin PP103,104,105,106, Kaiser WJ107, Karin M108,109,110,111, Kaufmann T112, Kepp O113,114,115,116,117,118, Kimchi A17, Kitsis RN80,81,82,119,120, Klionsky DJ121,122, Knight RA12, Kumar S123, Lee SW124, Lemasters JJ125,126, Levine B127,128,129, Linkermann A130, Lipton SA131,132,133, Lockshin RA134,135, López-Otín C136, Lowe SW137,138, Luedde T139, Lugli E140,141, MacFarlane M12, Madeo F35,142, Malewicz M12, Malorni W143, Manic G4,5, Marine JC144,145, Martin SJ146, Martinou JC147, Medema JP148,149, Mehlen P150,151,152,153,154,155, Meier P156, Melino S157, Miao EA158,159,160, Molkentin JD161, Moll UM162, Muñoz-Pinedo C163, Nagata S164, Nuñez G165,166, Oberst A167,168, Oren M169, Overholtzer M170, Pagano M66,171,172, Panaretakis T173,174, Pasparakis M175,176, Penninger JM177, Pereira DM178, Pervaiz S179,180,181, Peter ME182,183, Piacentini M4,70, Pinton P61,184,185, Prehn JHM186, Puthalakath H187, Rabinovich GA188,189, Rehm M190,191, Rizzuto R192, Rodrigues CMP193, Rubinsztein DC194, Rudel T195, Ryan KM84, Sayan E196, Scorrano L197,198, Shao F199, Shi Y200,201,202, Silke J48,203, Simon HU112, Sistigu A56,204, Stockwell BR205,206, Strasser A47, Szabadkai G192,207,208, Tait SWG84, Tang D209,210,211,212,213,214, Tavernarakis N215, Thorburn A216, Tsujimoto Y217, Turk B218,219, Vanden Berghe T22,23, Vandenabeele P22,23, Vander Heiden MG220,221,222, Villunger A223, Virgin HW224, Vousden KH208, Vucic D225, Wagner EF226, Walczak H227, Wallach D228, Wang Y229, Wells JA230, Wood W231, Yuan J94,232, Zakeri Z233, Zhivotovsky B101,234, Zitvogel L114,235,236,237, Melino G12,21, Kroemer G238,239,240,241,242,243,244.

Author information

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA. deadoc@vodafone.it.
2
Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. deadoc@vodafone.it.
3
Paris Descartes/Paris V University, Paris, France. deadoc@vodafone.it.
4
Department of Biology, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy.
5
Unit of Cellular Networks and Molecular Therapeutic Targets, Department of Research, Advanced Diagnostics and Technological Innovation, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.
6
Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
7
Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
8
Institute of Immunology, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany.
9
Cell Death Research & Therapy (CDRT) Lab, Department of Cellular & Molecular Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
10
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
11
Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and General Pathology, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Napoli, Italy.
12
Medical Research Council (MRC) Toxicology Unit, Leicester University, Leicester, UK.
13
Biological Sciences, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada.
14
Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
15
Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.
16
Biochemistry Laboratory, Dermopatic Institute of Immaculate (IDI) IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
17
Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
18
Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.
19
Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.
20
Neuroscience Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.
21
Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy.
22
VIB Center for Inflammation Research (IRC), Ghent, Belgium.
23
Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
24
Centre for Molecular Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.
25
Cell Stress Biology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA.
26
Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
27
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
28
Institute of Molecular Medicine and Cell Research, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
29
Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine (SGBM), Faculty of Medicine, Albert Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany.
30
Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Center for Biological Investigation (CIB), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
31
INSERM U1180, Châtenay Malabry, France.
32
University of Paris Sud/Paris Saclay, Orsay, France.
33
Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK.
34
University College London Consortium for Mitochondrial Research, London, UK.
35
Department Institute of Molecular Biosciences, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
36
Unit of Cell Stress and Survival, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
37
Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
38
Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.
39
Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
40
Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
41
Signal Transduction Laboratory, National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
42
Technion Integrated Cancer Center (TICC), The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine and Research Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
43
Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
44
Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Center Munich, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Munich, Germany.
45
Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
46
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.
47
The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
48
Department of Medical Biology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
49
Cancer Research UK and Medical Research Council Institute for Radiation Oncology, Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Oxford, UK.
50
Neuroregeneration and Stem Cell Programs, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
51
Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
52
Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
53
Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
54
Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
55
Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, CeSI-MetUniversity of Chieti-Pescara "G. d'Annunzio", Chieti, Italy.
56
Institute of General Pathology, Catholic University "Sacro Cuore", Rome, Italy.
57
Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany.
58
Children's Medical Center Research Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
59
Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
60
Hypertension and Nephrology Unit, Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy.
61
Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
62
Department of Physiological Chemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.
63
Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.
64
Baylor Scott & White Research Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Dallas, TX, USA.
65
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
66
Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
67
Laboratory of Translational Oncology and Experimental Cancer Therapeutics, Department of Hematology/Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
68
Molecular Therapeutics Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
69
Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Pharmacology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
70
National Institute for Infectious Diseases IRCCS "Lazzaro Spallanzani", Rome, Italy.
71
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies (DiSTeBA), University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
72
Institute for Experimental Cancer Research in Pediatrics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.
73
German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner Site, Frankfurt, Germany.
74
German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
75
Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, Tübingen University, Tübingen, Germany.
76
INSERM U1231 "Lipides Nutrition Cancer", Dijon, France.
77
Faculty of Medicine, University of Burgundy France Comté, Dijon, France.
78
Cancer Centre Georges François Leclerc, Dijon, France.
79
Department of Biochemistry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
80
Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
81
Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
82
Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
83
Immunology Center of Marseille-Luminy, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France.
84
Cancer Research UK Beatson Institute, Glasgow, UK.
85
Department of Immunology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.
86
Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.
87
Team labeled "Ligue Contre le Cancer", Department of Functional Genomics and Cancer, Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology (IGBMC), Illkirch, France.
88
CNRS UMR 7104, Illkirch, France.
89
INSERM U964, Illkirch, France.
90
University of Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.
91
Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
92
MitoCare Center, Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
93
Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
94
Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
95
Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
96
Biomedical Neuroscience Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
97
Center for Geroscience, Brain Health and Metabolism, Santiago, Chile.
98
Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.
99
Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
100
Cell Death and Metabolism Unit, Center for Autophagy, Recycling and Disease, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
101
Toxicology Unit, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
102
III Medical Department for Hematology and Oncology, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany.
103
Team 8 "Stress adaptation and tumor escape", CRCINA-INSERM U1232, Nantes, France.
104
University of Nantes, Nantes, France.
105
University of Angers, Angers, France.
106
Institute of Cancer Research in Western France, Saint-Herblain, France.
107
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.
108
Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
109
Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
110
Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
111
Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
112
Institute of Pharmacology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
113
Paris Descartes/Paris V University, Paris, France.
114
Faculty of Medicine, Paris Sud/Paris XI University, Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
115
Metabolomics and Cell Biology Platforms, Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
116
Team 11 labeled "Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer", Cordeliers Research Center, Paris, France.
117
INSERM U1138, Paris, France.
118
Pierre et Marie Curie/Paris VI University, Paris, France.
119
Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
120
Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.
121
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
122
Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
123
Centre for Cancer Biology, University of South Australia and SA Pathology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
124
Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA.
125
Center for Cell Death, Injury and Regeneration, Department of Drug Discovery & Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
126
Center for Cell Death, Injury and Regeneration, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
127
Center for Autophagy Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
128
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
129
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
130
Division of Nephrology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
131
Department of Molecular Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.
132
Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.
133
Neuroscience Translational Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.
134
Department of Biology, St. John's University, Queens, NY, USA.
135
Queens College of the City University of New York, Queens, NY, USA.
136
Departament of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University Institute of Oncology of Asturias (IUOPA), University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
137
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.
138
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
139
Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Hepatobiliary Oncology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany.
140
Laboratory of Translational Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.
141
Humanitas Flow Cytometry Core, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.
142
BioTechMed Graz, Graz, Austria.
143
National Centre for Gender Medicine, Italian National Institute of Health (ISS), Rome, Italy.
144
Laboratory for Molecular Cancer Biology, VIB Center for Cancer Biology, Leuven, Belgium.
145
Laboratory for Molecular Cancer Biology, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
146
Departments of Genetics, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.
147
Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
148
Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiobiology (LEXOR), Center for Experimental Molecular Medicine (CEMM), Academic Medical Center (AMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
149
Cancer Genomics Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
150
Apoptosis, Cancer and Development laboratory, CRCL, Lyon, France.
151
Team labeled "La Ligue contre le Cancer", Lyon, France.
152
LabEx DEVweCAN, Lyon, France.
153
INSERM U1052, Lyon, France.
154
CNRS UMR5286, Lyon, France.
155
Department of Translational Research and Innovation, Léon Bérard Cancer Center, Lyon, France.
156
The Breast Cancer Now Toby Robins Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, Mary-Jean Mitchell Green Building, Chester Beatty Laboratories, London, UK.
157
Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome, Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
158
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
159
Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
160
Center for Gastrointestinal Biology and Disease, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
161
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
162
Department of Pathology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.
163
Cell Death Regulation Group, Oncobell Program, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.
164
Laboratory of Biochemistry and Immunology, World Premier International (WPI) Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
165
Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
166
Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
167
Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
168
Center for Innate Immunity and Immune Disease, Seattle, WA, USA.
169
Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute, Rehovot, Israel.
170
Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.
171
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
172
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
173
Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
174
Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
175
Institute for Genetics, Center for Molecular Medicine (CMMC), University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
176
Cologne Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
177
Institute of Molecular Biotechnology of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (IMBA), Campus Vienna BioCentre, Vienna, Austria.
178
REQUIMTE/LAQV, Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
179
Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
180
NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
181
National University Cancer Institute, National University Health System (NUHS), Singapore, Singapore.
182
Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
183
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
184
LTTA center, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.
185
Maria Cecilia Hospital, GVM Care & Research, Health Science Foundation, Cotignola, Italy.
186
Department of Physiology, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
187
Department of Biochemistry, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.
188
Laboratory of Immunopathology, Institute of Biology and Experimental Medicine (IBYME), National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
189
Department of Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
190
Institute of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.
191
Stuttgart Research Center Systems Biology, Stuttgart, Germany.
192
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
193
Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
194
Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research (CIMR), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
195
Department of Microbiology, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
196
Cancer Sciences Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.
197
Department of Biology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
198
Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padua, Italy.
199
National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing, China.
200
Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
201
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Stem Cells and Medicinal Biomaterials, Institutes for Translational Medicine, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
202
The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Institutes for Translational Medicine, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
203
Division of Inflammation, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
204
Unit of Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy, Department of Research, Advanced Diagnostics and Technological Innovation, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.
205
Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
206
Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
207
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London Consortium for Mitochondrial Research, London, UK.
208
Francis Crick Institute, London, UK.
209
The Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
210
Center for DAMP Biology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
211
Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
212
Key Laboratory of Reproduction and Genetics of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
213
Key Laboratory for Protein Modification and Degradation of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
214
Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
215
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.
216
Department of Pharmacology, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.
217
Research Center, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.
218
Department Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, "Jozef Stefan" Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
219
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
220
Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
221
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
222
Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
223
Division of Developmental Immunology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.
224
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.
225
Department of Early Discovery Biochemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA.
226
Genes, Development and Disease Group, Cancer Cell Biology Program, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.
227
Centre for Cell Death, Cancer and Inflammation, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London, UK.
228
Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.
229
Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
230
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
231
School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
232
Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
233
Department of Biology, Queens College of the City University of New York, Queens, NY, USA.
234
Faculty of Fundamental Medicine, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.
235
Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Villejuif, France.
236
INSERM U1015, Villejuif, France.
237
Center of Clinical Investigations in Biotherapies of Cancer (CICBT) 1428, Villejuif, France.
238
Paris Descartes/Paris V University, Paris, France. kroemer@orange.fr.
239
Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. kroemer@orange.fr.
240
Metabolomics and Cell Biology Platforms, Gustave Roussy Comprehensive Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. kroemer@orange.fr.
241
Team 11 labeled "Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer", Cordeliers Research Center, Paris, France. kroemer@orange.fr.
242
INSERM U1138, Paris, France. kroemer@orange.fr.
243
Pierre et Marie Curie/Paris VI University, Paris, France. kroemer@orange.fr.
244
Biology Pole, European Hospital George Pompidou, AP-HP, Paris, France. kroemer@orange.fr.

Abstract

Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, immunogenic cell death, cellular senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, we discuss the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes. The mission of the NCCD is to provide a widely accepted nomenclature on cell death in support of the continued development of the field.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center