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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 Jan 1;59(1):85-93. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-22905.

Severe Loss of Tritan Color Discrimination in RPE65 Associated Leber Congenital Amaurosis.

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UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
Cambridge Research Systems Ltd., Kent, United Kingdom.



RPE65-associated Leber congenital amaurosis (RPE65-LCA) is a progressive severe retinal dystrophy with early profound dysfunction of rod photoreceptors followed by progressive cone photoreceptor degeneration. We aim to provide detailed information about how cone dysfunction affects color discrimination.


Seven adults (aged 16-21) with RPE65-LCA underwent monocular color discrimination assessment using the Trivector and Ellipse versions of three computerized tests: Cambridge Colour Test (CCT), low vision version of the Cambridge Colour Test (lvvCCT), and the Universal Colour Discrimination Test (UCDT). For comparison, subjects were also tested using the American Optical Hardy Rand Rittler (AO-HRR) plates. Each assessment was repeated three times.


The Trivector version of the tests demonstrated that color discrimination along the tritan axis was undetectable in four subjects, and severely reduced in three subjects. These findings were confirmed by the Ellipse version of the tests. Color discrimination along the protan and deutan axes was evident but reduced in six of seven subjects. Four of seven subjects were unable to read any of the HRR plates.


The computerized color vision tests adopted in this study provide detailed information about color discrimination in adult RPE65-LCA patients. The condition is associated with severe impairment of color discrimination, particularly along the tritan axis indicating possible early involvement of S-cones, with additional protan and deutan loss to a lesser extent. This psychophysical assessment strategy is likely to be valuable in measuring the impact of therapeutic intervention on cone function.

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