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Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 11;8(1):496. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18684-1.

Reference gene identification and validation for quantitative real-time PCR studies in developing Xenopus laevis.

Author information

1
CNRS/UMR7221, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle/Université Paris-Sorbonne, Paris, France.
2
CNRS/UMR7221, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle/Université Paris-Sorbonne, Paris, France. bdem@mnhn.fr.
3
CNRS/UMR7221, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle/Université Paris-Sorbonne, Paris, France. fini@mnhn.fr.

Abstract

Reference genes are essential for gene expression analysis when using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Xenopus laevis is a popular amphibian model for studying vertebrate embryogenesis and development. Further, X. laevis is ideal for studying thyroid signaling due to its thyroid dependent metamorphosis, a stage comparable to birth in humans. When using PCR based studies, a primary concern is the choice of reference genes. Commonly used references are eef1a1, odc1, rpl8, and actnB, although there is a lack of ad hoc reference genes for X. laevis. Here, we used previously published RNA-seq data on different X. laevis stages and identified the top 14 candidate genes with respect to their expression levels as a function of developmental stage and degree of variation. We further evaluated the stability of these and other candidate genes using RT-qPCR on various stages including the unfertilised eggs, whole embryos during early development and brains during late development. We used four different statistical software packages: deltaCT, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. We report optimized reference gene pair combinations for studying development (early whole embryos), brains at later stages (metamorphosis and adult), and  thyroid signalling. These reference gene pairs are suitable for studying different aspects of X. laevis development and organogenesis.

PMID:
29323148
PMCID:
PMC5764961
DOI:
10.1038/s41598-017-18684-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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