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Pediatr Diabetes. 2018 Jun;19(4):680-689. doi: 10.1111/pedi.12633. Epub 2018 Jan 2.

Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in adolescents and young adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Cohort Study.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
2
Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
3
Department of Preventive Cardiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
4
Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado.
5
Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
6
Santa Barbara, California.
7
Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
8
Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
9
Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
10
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and Center for Research in Nutrition and Health Disparities, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.
11
Northwest Lipid Research Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
12
Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland.
13
Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate the prevalence of and risk factors for cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in adolescents and young adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes enrolled in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.

METHODS:

The study included 1646 subjects with type 1 diabetes (age 18 ± 4 years, diabetes duration 8 ± 2 years, HbA1c 9.1 ± 1.9%, 76% non-Hispanic Whites) and 252 with type 2 diabetes (age 22 ± 4 years, diabetes duration 8 ± 2 years, HbA1c 9.2 ± 3.0%, 45% non-Hispanic Blacks). Cross-sectional and longitudinal risk factors were assessed at baseline and follow-up visits. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess the longitudinal glycemic exposure and cardiovascular risk factors. CAN was assessed by time and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV). CAN was defined as the presence of ≥3 of 5 abnormal HRV indices.

RESULTS:

The prevalence of CAN was 12% in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and 17% in those with type 2 diabetes. Poor long-term glycemic control (AUC HbA1c), high blood pressure, and elevated triglyceride levels were correlates of CAN in subjects with type 1 diabetes. In those with type 2 diabetes, CAN was associated with elevated triglycerides and increased urinary albumin excretion.

CONCLUSIONS:

The prevalence of CAN in this multiethnic cohort of adolescents and young adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes are comparable to those reported in adults with diabetes. Suboptimal glycemic control and elevated triglycerides were the modifiable risk factors associated with CAN.

KEYWORDS:

cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy; heart rate variability; prevalence; type 1 and type 2 diabetes

PMID:
29292558
PMCID:
PMC5938122
[Available on 2019-06-01]
DOI:
10.1111/pedi.12633

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