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Adv Healthc Mater. 2018 Mar;7(6):e1700919. doi: 10.1002/adhm.201700919. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Biomimetic Tissue-Engineered Bone Substitutes for Maxillofacial and Craniofacial Repair: The Potential of Cell Sheet Technologies.

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Centre de recherche en organogénèse expérimentale de l'Université Laval/LOEX, Division of Regenerative Medicine, CHU de Québec Research Center-Université Laval Québec, QC, G1J 1Z4, Canada.
Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada.


Maxillofacial defects are complex lesions stemming from various etiologies: accidental, congenital, pathological, or surgical. A bone graft may be required when the normal regenerative capacity of the bone is exceeded or insufficient. Surgeons have many options available for bone grafting including the "gold standard" autologous bone graft. However, this approach is not without drawbacks such as the morbidity associated with harvesting bone from a donor site, pain, infection, or a poor quantity and quality of bone in some patient populations. This review discusses the various bone graft substitutes used for maxillofacial and craniofacial repair: allografts, xenografts, synthetic biomaterials, and tissue-engineered substitutes. A brief overview of bone tissue engineering evolution including the use of mesenchymal stem cells is exposed, highlighting the first clinical applications of adipose-derived stem/stromal cells in craniofacial reconstruction. The importance of prevascularization strategies for bone tissue engineering is also discussed, with an emphasis on recent work describing substitutes produced using cell sheet-based technologies, including the use of thermo-responsive plates and the self-assembly approach of tissue engineering. Indeed, considering their entirely cell-based design, these natural bone-like substitutes have the potential to closely mimic the osteogenicity, osteoconductivity, osteoinduction, and osseointegration properties of autogenous bone for maxillofacial and craniofacial reconstruction.


bone substitutes; cell sheet; prevascularization; stem cells; tissue engineering

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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